Let us have a detailed look at the important difference between C3 and C4 plants. In C4 plants, the two pathways take place in different cells. The difference is that the stomata are open at night to have a controlled release of water vapor to drive the upward pull of water and dissolved nutrients in transpiration. The malate and aspartate molecules release the carbon dioxide in the chloroplasts of the bundle sheath cells and the Calvin Cycle begins. C3, C4 and CAM Plants The Calvin cycle uses the enzyme Rubisco (RuBP carboxylase) to fix CO 2 to RuBP and make a 3C compound (GP) Plants that fix carbon dioxide directly from the air are called C 3 plants (as the initial product is a 3C compound) According to Pima Community College, during photosynthesis, C3 plants incorporate carbon dioxide into a three-carbon compound, while C4 plants incorporate carbon dioxide into a four-carbon compound. The C4 plants have introduced an extra bit into the Calvin-Benson cycle, an extra early reaction that fixes CO2 into not *3*-carbon sugars, but *4*-carbon sugars called oxaloacetate (hence the names, by the way, C3 for 3-carbon and C4 for 4-carbon sugars) -- by plunking CO2 onto a different receptor molecule (phosphoenolpyruvate, or PEP) by way of the enzyme PEP carboxylase. The additional C4 step holds CO2. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. Three important types of photosynthesis are C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis. CAM plants are not as efficient as C4 plants in photosynthesis. The carbon fixation pathways used by C4 and CAM plants have added steps to help concentrate and reduce the loss of carbon during the process. The image above shows the C3 carbon fixation pathway also known as the Calvin Cycle, used my many types of plants. Difference between C3, C4 and CAM plants. Difference # C3 Plants: 1. Summary of differences in stomatal biology of C 3 and CAM plants. Species: Cactuses and other succulents, Clusia, tequila agave, pineapple. C3 plants don’t have an adaptation of reduction in photorespiration, but C4 plants have a tendency to reduce the rate of photorespiration. Photosynthesis is, broadly speaking, a process that takes energy from light and produces sugar molecules out of water and carbon dioxide ([math]CO_2[/math]). The carbon dioxide then undergoes the Calvin cycle, as in C3 photosynthesis. The key difference between C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis is the way plants extract carbon dioxide from sunlight, which depends largely on the plant's habitat. The carbohydrate product of both C3 and C4 cycle is a three-carbon sugar phosphate molecule known as Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P). C4 plants include corn, sugar cane, millet, sorghum, pineapple, daisies and cabbage. A "difference between" reference site. The leaves possess kranz anatomy, and the chloroplasts of these plants are dimorphic. Sort by: Top Voted. Difference between C3, C4 and CAM plants. open their stomata only at night use PEP carboxylase to fix carbon dioxide transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs are better adapted to wet conditions use malic acid to transfer carbon dioxide to the Calvin cycle All three are alternatives to conserve water to limit the amount of water loss, to ultimately create more product through photosynthesis. They mostly live in environments with a moderate amount of sunlight, moderate temperatures and plenty of water, and they use the C 3 carbon fixation pathway (or Calvin cycle) to integrate the CO 2 into a three carbon sugar, hence C 3.. in English literature from the University of Cincinnati. In. Leaf anatomy in C 4 plants: Leaves of C 4 plants show two type of cells viz. However, the process of photosynthesis varies among plants, depending on their living conditions. Calvin cycle only. A C4 plant is a plant that cycles carbon dioxide into four-carbon sugar compounds to enter into the Calvin cycle. His academic background allows him to write articles in all fields of education, as well as science and philosophy. About 5% of plants on earth are C4 plants. Main or the key difference between C3 and C4 is that C3 are found in all photosynthetic plants and C4 are found usually in tropical plants. The plant harnesses the energy from the converted enzymes to extract carbon dioxide from air and water and produce sugar molecules such as glucose. During the one-step process, the enzyme RuBisCO (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) causes an oxidation reaction in which some of the energy used in photosynthesis is lost in a process known as photorespiration. About 5% of plants on earth are C4 plants. 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