CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.


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1 CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1
2 Dimensions, Dimensional homogeneity and Units Fluid has qualitative and quantitative characteristic. Qualitative : To identify the nature of fluid such as length, time, stress and velocity. Quantitative : Numerical measure of the characteristic. Quantitative requires both a number and a standard. Such standards are called unit. 2
3 Primary quantity : L : Length T : Time M : Mass θ: Temperature Secondary quantity : L 2 : Area LT 1 : Velocity ML 3 : Density 3
4 All theoretically derived equations are dimensionally homogeneous. The dimension of the left side of the equation must be the same as those on the right side, and all additive separate terms must have the same dimensions. Example : V LT = V o = + at LT + LT
5 5
6 UNIT 3 major systems that are commonly used in engineering. 1. British Gravitational (BG) System Length foot (ft) Time second (s) Force pound (lb) Temperature Fahrenheit (ºF) 2. International System (SI) Length meter (m) Time second (s) Mass kilogram (kg) Temperature Kelvin (K) The relation of Kelvin and Celsius is; K = C
7 3. English Engineering (EE) System Length foot (ft) Time second (s) Mass pound mass (lbm) Force pound (lb or lbf) Temperature Rankine (ºR) 7
8 8
9 Density MEASURES OF FLUID MASS AND WEIGHT Designated by the Greek symbol ρ (rho). Defined as its mass per unit volume. ρ = mass = volume kg 3 m Specific volume, is the volume per unit mass. This property is not commonly used in fluid mechanics but is used widely in thermodynamics. volume υ = mass = 1 ρ 9
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12 Specific weight Designated by the Greek symbol γ (gamma). Defined as its weight per unit volume. weight mg kg g γ = = = = ρg 3 volume volume m Specific gravity Designated as SG. Defined as the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified temperature is taken as 4ºC. SG = ρ H 2 ρ C 12
13 Ideal gas law Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquids, with changes in gas density directly related to changes in pressure and temperature through the equation ; P = ρrt P : pressure ρ : density R : gas constant T : temperature 13
14 The pressure in the ideal gas law must be expressed as an absolute pressure (abs), which means that it is measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that would only occur in a perfect vacuum) Standard sealevel atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi and 101 kpa, respectively. 14
15 VISCOSITY The property of viscosity is described the fluidity of the fluid. To resist the applied force, P, a shearing stress, τ, would be developed at the platematerial interface. The equilibrium is ; P = τa It revealed that as the shearing stress, τ, is increased by increasing P. 15
16 We can say that shear stress, τ, has direct proportion with the velocity gradient that is ; τ du dy The shearing stress and velocity gradient can be related with a relationship of the form ; τ = µ (mu) is dynamic viscosity. µ du dy 16
17 Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as Newtonian fluids. Fluids for which the shearing stress is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain are designated as nonnewtonian fluids. 17
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20 BULK MODULUS A property that is commonly used to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus. Defined as ; dp E = = dp υ dv dρ V ρ we conclude that liquids can be considered as incompressible for most practical engineering applications. 20
21 COMPRESSION & EXPANSION OF GAS When gases are compressed (or expanded) the relationship between pressure and density depends on the nature of the process. If the compression or expansion takes place under constant temperature conditions (isothermal process), then ; P = constant ρ If the compression or expansion is frictionless and no heat is exchanged with the surroundings (isentropic process), then ; P k ρ = constant 21
22 k is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure, c p, to the specific heat at constant volume, c v. k = c p c v 22
23 SURFACE TENSION The intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along any line in the surface is called the surface tension. Designated by the Greek symbol, σ (sigma) Unit is N/m. The forces balance of halfcut spherical is shown as ; 2 2πRσ = PπR 23
24 The forces balance of capillary action is shown as ; 2 2π Rσ cosθ = ρghπr 24
25 PROBLEMS FOR CHAPTER 1 FLUID PROPERTIES QUESTION 1 According to information found in an old hydraulics book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula 4 2 h = (0.04 to 0.09)( D / d) V / 2g where h is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter, d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid in any system of units? Explain. QUESTION 2 The noslip condition means that a fluid sticks to a solid surface. This is true for both fixed and moving surfaces. Let two layers of fluid be dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in Figure 1. The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress on the upper plate, and the lower fluid puts a shear stress on the bottom plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear stresses. QUESTION 3 Figure 1 A 25mmdiameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as shown in Figure 2. The lubricant that fills the 0.3mm gap between the shaft and bearing is an oil having a kinematic viscosity of m 2 /s and a specific gravity of Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3 m/s. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Figure 2 1
26 QUESTION 4 A layer of water flows down an inclined fixed surface with the velocity profile shown in Figure 3. Determine the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface for U = 2 m/s and h = 0.1 m. Figure 3 QUESTION 5 The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Figure 4. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocity, ω. The torque T required to develop ω is measured and the viscosity is calculated from these two measurements. Develop an equation relating µ, ω, T, l, R o, and R i. Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Figure 4 2
27 QUESTION 6 A conical body rotates at a constant angular velocity of 600 rpm in a container as shown in Figure 5. A uniform ft gap between the cone and the container is filled with oil that has a viscosity of 0.01 lb s/ft 2. Determine the torque required to rotate the cone. Figure 5 QUESTION 7 A 12in.diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a 0.1in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin as shown in Figure 6. Determine the torque required to rotate the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm. Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge of the rotating plate is negligible. Figure 6 3
28 QUESTION 8 Surface tension forces can be strong enough to allow a doubleedge steel razor blade to float on water, but a singleedge blade will sink. Assume that the surface tension forces act at an angle θ relative to the water surface as shown in Figure 7. (a) The mass of the doubleedge blade is kg, and the total length of its sides is 206 mm. Determine the value of θ required to maintain equilibrium between the blade weight and the resultant surface tension force. (b) The mass of the singleedge blade is kg, and the total length of its sides is 154 mm. Explain why this blade sinks. Support your answer with the necessary calculations. Figure 7 Answer : 1. Valid. Similarity in units P = 286 (N) 4. τ = (N/m 2 ). Acting in the direction of flow. 3 2πR1 lµω 5. Torque = R o R1 6. Torque = ft.lb 7. Torque = ft.lb 8. (a) sinθ = (float) (b) sinθ = (impossible, sink) 4
29 PAST YEAR QUESTION QUESTION 1 Rajah S1 (a) Sebuah cakera berdiameter 75mm berputar pada kelajuan ω = 4 rad/s dalam sebuah bekas yang berputar pada kelajuan ω = 2 rad/s seperti dalam rajah S1. Bekas dipenuhi minyak berkelikatan Ns/m2. Dengan mengabaikan kesan kelikatan dihujung cakera, buktikan bahawa daya kilas yang diperlukan untuk memutarkan satu permukaan cakera ialah : T = / h dengan h ialah kelegaan antara cakera dengan bekas. (b) Jika kelegaan dibahagian atas cakera dalam soalan 1(a) ialah 3m dan dibahagian bawah ialah 2mm, tentukan daya kilas yang diperlukan untuk memutar cakera tersebut.
30 QUESTION 2 Figure Q1 (a) State and explain the Newton s law of viscosity. (b) A viscous clutch is to be made from a pair of closely spaced parallel discs enclosing a thin layer of viscous liquid a shown in Figure Q1. Develop algebraic expression for the torque and the power transmitted by the disc pair, in term of liquid viscosity, µ, disc radius, R, disc spacing, a, and the angular speed, ω i, of the input disc and ω o of the output disc. (c) Develop an expression for the slip ratio, s = ω/ω i, in term of ω i and the torque transmitted. ω is the difference of angular speed between the disc pair. Answer : 1. (b) Total Torque = (N.m) ( ω ωo) 2. (b) Torque = µ π a 2aT (c) S = 4 ω πµ R R 2
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