Evaluate existing instructional resources (media/emerging technology) to determine appropriateness for specified instructional strategies and learner outcomes. Up until now, we have focused mainly on research that has fallen outside the traditional bounds of our field. Chapter 11: Ensuring quality teaching in a digital age. As the technology becomes established, the speed of transformation of functioning becomes reach stability since the technological threshold is attained. These games will often present prior knowledge schema in a different method, thus creating disequilibrium and a need to adapt and learn the new information in order to continue. The use of mobile technology to support teaching and learning in schools, has extended technology learning tools in schools across different socio economic divides. Educational Technology Related Theories Since the 20thcentury, some major educational theories, such as Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism and Multiple Intelligence, have been widely implemented in education, greatly linked to the development and utilization of the educational technology. Cognitive learning is an active style of learning that focuses on helping you learn how to maximize your brain’s potential. Information Technology Competency Model The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) has worked with the Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) and technical and subject matter experts from education, business, and industry to update a comprehensive competency model for the Information Technology (IT) industry. When people discuss the theory, they often use computer-based metaphors. Behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environments. This latter approach therefore lays stress not only on the environment, but upon the way in which the individual interprets and tries to make sense of the environment. Identify a range of relevant learner/trainee characteristics and determine methods for assessing them. (a) the core competencies for instructional/training development generated by the Task Force in Instructional Design Certification of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT) Division of Instructional Development in 1981; (b) competency lists generated in a study conducted at Florida State University concerning academic program requirements (1993); (c) competencies developed by the AECT Definition and Terminology Committee (1994), and. Plan and conduct summative evaluation of instruction/training. Connectivism is still being refined and developed, and it is currently highly controversial, with many critics.In connectivism it is the 11.6 Step four: build on existing resources, 11.8 Step six: set appropriate learning goals, 11.9 Step seven: design course structure and learning activities, 11.10 Step eight: communicate, communicate, communicate, 11.12  Building a strong foundation of course design, Chapter 12: Supporting teachers and instructors in a digital age, 12.2 The development and training of teachers and instructors in a digital age, 12.6 An institutional strategy for teaching in a digital age, Appendix 1: Building an effective learning environment, A.1 Integrating design principles within a rich learning environment, A.10 Building the foundation of good design, Appendix 2: Questions to guide media selection and use, T: Teaching and other pedagogical factors, Appendix 3 Online learning quality standards, organisations and research, A review from a faculty perspective: Professor James Mitchell, A review from an open and distance education perspective: Sir John Daniel, A review from a digital education perspective: Digital Education Strategies, Ryerson University, Activity 1.8 Main conclusions from Chapter 1. Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Cognitivists believe that knowledge resides in complex memory structures in the human mind called schemata, and learning is the process of changing these structures. Cognitivism requires educators and learners to focus on how dynamic memory and thought processes are effectively changed. These domains include: instructional design, instructional development, utilization, management and evaluation. Evaluate the appropriateness, completeness, and accuracy of given needs assessment plans and results. Apply principles of selection and use of materials and techniques relevant to a multicultural society (e.g., non-print, print, mass media, hardware, software, other audiovisual strategies. Educational technology has for some time been influenced by developments in cognitive psychology. Evaluate the appropriateness and completeness of a given sequence of learner instructional activities. The technology dimension can be organized into four categories: print media, audiovisual media, electronic media, and integrated media. Undoubtedly, some l… Analyze performance problems to distinguish between situations requiring instructional solutions and those requiring other solutions. in response to experience. Conduct a needs assessment and interpret its results to suggest appropriate actions. Select and use appropriate procedures to analyze the structural characteristics of a job, task and/or content appropriate to that job, task, and/or content, and state a rationale for the selection. In more recent years, Anderson and Krathwol (2000) have slightly modified Bloom et al.’s original taxonomy, adding ‘creating’ new knowledge: Bloom et al. Evaluation and Organizational Learning Concentration, School of Health & Applied Human Sciences. Consequently, the domain's knowledge base is complex and includes a vast array of procedural models, conceptual models, and theories (Richy, 1993). When the technology is in novel phase, enhancements are fast and product functioning ascents rapidly. Evaluate the appropriateness, completeness and adequacy of given formative evaluation plans, information gathering techniques, and revision specifications. Assess the relative merits of alternative delivery (e.g., internet, hypermedia, distance learning) to accomplish specified learning objectives. 1.3 Should education be tied directly to the labour market? Develop and monitor an instructional development project plan (including time-lines, budget, staffing, etc. Select appropriate information technologies and design. Constructivism has two major branches of thought: Cognitivist constructivism that focuses on the individual's efforts to acquire knowledge, and sociocultural constructivism that talks about the acquisition or enculturation of knowledge by a social group. his inner world of concepts, memories, etc.) 1.5 The impact of expansion on teaching methods, 1.6 Changing students, changing markets for higher education, 1.7 From the periphery to the center: how technology is changing the way we teach, 1.8 Navigating new developments in technology and online learning, Chapter 2: The nature of knowledge and the implications for teaching, Scenario C: A pre-dinner party discussion, 2.1 Art, theory, research, and best practices in teaching, 2.2 Epistemology and theories of learning, Chapter 3: Methods of teaching: campus-focused, Scenario D: A stats lecturer fights the system, 3.2 The origins of the classroom design model, 3.3 Transmissive lectures: learning by listening, 3.4 Interactive lectures, seminars, and tutorials: learning by talking, 3.5 Apprenticeship: learning by doing (1), 3.6 Experiential learning: learning by doing (2), 3.7 The nurturing and social reform models of teaching: learning by feeling, Chapter 4: Methods of teaching with an online focus, Scenario E: Developing historical thinking, 4.2 Old wine in new bottles: classroom-type online learning, Scenario F: ETEC 522: Ventures in e-Learning, 4.7 'Agile' Design: flexible designs for learning, 4.8 Making decisions about teaching methods, 5.5 Political, social and economic drivers of MOOCs, 5.6 Why MOOCs are only part of the answer, Chapter 6: Understanding technology in education, 6.1 Choosing technologies for teaching and learning: the challenge, 6.2 A short history of educational technology, 6.5 The time and space dimensions of media, 6.7 Understanding the foundations of educational media, Chapter 7: Pedagogical differences between media, 7.1 Thinking about the pedagogical differences of media, 7.7 A framework for analysing the pedagogical characteristics of educational media, Chapter 8: Choosing and using media in education: the SECTIONS model, 9.1 The continuum of technology-based learning, 9.4 Choosing between face-to-face and online teaching on campus, 10.3 Open textbooks, open research and open data. Definition of Cognitive Constructivism: An approach to constructivism based on the work of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, particularly his theory of cognitive development. It ranges from usage (simple, one-time use of some instructional materials or techniques) to installation (the material or technique embedded in a large package of instructional system) to institutionalization (effort to embed the instructional innovation into the structure and culture of the organization). Anderson, L. and Krathwohl, D. Evaluate the appropriateness of a specified instructional strategy for a given situation. Analyze setting characteristics and determine the relevant culture, resources and constraints. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Prepare specifications for the production of materials where required. Teaching in a Digital Age by Anthony William (Tony) Bates is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Select strategies appropriate for promoting the diffusion and adoption of the instructional development process in a given setting and state a rationale for the strategies. The function of this domain is to manage the interface between learner and instructional materials or systems. Plan, create, monitor, and facilitate instructional design projects. Many people describe cognitivism as a view that the mind is basically a computer with the ability to process and store things. According to Piaget, the knowledge of human beings is “constructed” through experience, but not from the information they are given. Develop curriculum and apply instructional technology to the curriculum at the systems level, the macro level and the micro level. List of Competencies Three theories provide the basis for the development of instructional technology. Learning needs and theories that describe learning principles and processes, should be reflective of underlying social environments. Identify delivery systems matched to the developmental needs of the learner and requirements for goal accomplishment. Cognitivism: While behaviorism focuses on learning shaped by the external environment, and what behaviors can be observed, cognitivism focuses on the internal environment of the learner's mind, thought, and memory. Conduct analysis of jobs/tasks and content. New York: David McKay Company, Fontana, D. (1981) Psychology for Teachers London: Macmillan/British Psychological Society. Program goals are based upon several sets of documents which identify critical competencies in the field of instructional technology, including: Instructional design refers to its planning function, and the application of such planning to the entire range of system activities, including program maintenance and evaluation. Another epistemological position, connectivism, has emerged in recent years that is particularly relevant to a digital society. Plan and conduct a formative evaluation (trials with learners, expert review, analysis of implementation consideration). Determine instructional resources (media/computer technology) appropriate to instructional activities. Cognitive psychology is concerned with identifying and describing mental processes that affect learning, thinking and behaviour, and the conditions that influence those mental processes. Technology for Learning and Teaching: Empowers educators to efficiently personalize learning with access to data, content and the cloud. The Master of Science in Instructional Technology (MIT) program goals are clustered into five domains within the field of instructional technology. Cognitive approaches to learning cover a very wide range. However, humans have the ability for conscious thought, decision-making, emotions, and the ability to express ideas through social discourse, all of which are highly significant for learning. 10.4 The implications of 'open' for course and program design: towards a paradigm shift? Evaluate the appropriateness of instructional decisions and provide a rationale for the judgment. Cognitive approaches to learning, with a focus on comprehension, abstraction, analysis, synthesis, generalization, evaluation, decision-making, problem-solving and creative thinking, seem to fit much better with higher education than behaviourism, but even in school/k-12 education, a cognitivist approach would mean for instance focusing on teaching learners how to learn, on developing stronger or new mental processes for future learning, and on developing deeper and constantly changing understanding of concepts and ideas. Cognitivist learning theories are understood to have stemmed from the inadequacies of the behaviorist learning theories of strict stimulus and response training to fully explain how learning occurs. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Constructivism, a derivative of cognitivism, focuses on the active role of the learner in the process of learning. The successful management of the instructional development process requires a variety of management skills. Key competencies and technology learning in authentic contexts Key competencies are necessary for students to develop broad technological knowledge, practices, and dispositions that will equip them to participate in society as informed citizens. They are also prompted by the belief in the positive role of feedback. This domain grew as the educational research field grew. Models and theories in this domain have tended to focus on the user's perspective, providing a general rationale for the selection of appropriate learning activities for learners at different experiential levels. also argued that there is a hierarchy of learning, meaning that learners need to progress through each of the levels, from remembering through to evaluating/creating. It makes it easier for you to connect new information with existing ideas hence deepening your memory and retention capacity. Through normal cognitive development, these skills develop. 11.1 What do we mean by quality when teaching in a digital age? Analyze the characteristics of a setting (learning environment). 2. Definition of Cognitivism: Cognitivism is a learning theory according to which mental processes mediate learning and learning entails the construction or reshaping of mental schemata. Cognitive Information Processing (Cognitivism) Cognitive information processing is based on the thought process behind the behavior. Although the acquisition of “habits” is discussed, little attention is given as to how these habits are stored or recalled for future use. Evaluate the accuracy, comprehensiveness and appropriateness of a setting analysis. What is Cognitivism? Cognitivism has given rise to many evidence based education theories, including cognitive load theory, schema theory and dual coding theory as well as being the basis for retrieval practice. Specify a sequence of learner activities appropriate to the achievement of specified learner outcomes and state a rationale for the sequence. The following definition by Shuell (as interpreted by Schunk, 1991) incorporates these main ideas: “Learning is an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience” (p. 2). Demonstrate ability to produce audio scripts and audiotapes. Technology is one of the fundamental causes for the existence of a product life cycle. Over the last twenty years, technology has reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn. 11.4 Step two: what kind of course or program? Develop a range of formal and informal procedures and methods of data collection. Develop a range of information-gathering techniques (questionnaires, interviews, tests, simulations, observations, etc.). Recent efforts to integrate technology … Petri and Mishkin (1994) point to the work of researchers Edward Tolman, Wolfgang Kohler, and Ivan Krechevsky on the role of expectations, insight, purpose, and hypothesis making in the early 1920s and 30s as the earliest forays into c… Demonstrate knowledge of the principles of perception and visual learning applicable to the design and production of photographic instructional materials. They believe that the brain takes in information, analyzes it, stores it, and uses it. Needs assessments, formative and summative evaluations and criterion-referenced testing are prompted by the need to create self-regulated systems. Utilization is generally concerned with facilitating the use of resources for learning (Molenda, 1993). Conduct performance analysis and determine the appropriateness of instructional solutions for the problem. Demonstrate the ability to produce still and motion photographic instructional materials, including knowledge and competencies in: film characteristics, camera operation, exposure, darkroom processes, lighting and color photography. 2.4 Cognitivism 2.4.1 What is cognitivism? Others, such as business knowledge, take more time. Professional must be able to maintain accurate and complete client records. Some competencies, such as technical skills and knowledge, are relatively easy to acquire. Plan and conduct evaluation of instruction/training. Learning has been defined in numerous ways by many different theorists, researchers and educational practitioners. An obvious criticism of behaviourism is that it treats humans as a black box, where inputs into the black box, and outputs from the black box, are known and measurable, but what goes on inside the black box is ignored or not considered of interest. Evaluate the effectiveness of technology specific instructional delivery systems. Activity 6.1 How many technologies can you see in Figure 6.1? We have referred to sources in philosophy, psychology, computer science, and so on. 1. Activity 6.3 How would you classify the following (either medium or technology)? Analyze information regarding learner's/trainer's performance problems (instructional needs), situation-related characteristics, decision-related characteristics, and learner-related characteristics to determine appropriate learning outcomes, methods of assessing such outcomes, and delivery systems. Specify instructional strategies and sequence the instructional strategies.  Assessment of Professional Competence By: Catherine Snowden Facilitator: Dr. James Siebold, PhD LMFT BSHS-335 Ethic and Values for Human Service Professionals In the helping profession, it is essential to prove and uphold one's competency in a number of ways. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. Prepares students for the 21st century workforce with modern technology skills and competencies. Constructivism states that learning takes place in contexts, while technology refers to the designs and environments that engage learners. Organize the instructional project or service unit to operate effectively and efficiently. What areas of knowledge do you think would NOT be appropriately taught through a cognitivist approach? Apply leadership techniques with individuals and groups (interpersonal skills, group dynamics, team building and diffusion of innovations). These theories, however, were developed in a time when learning was not impacted through technology. In cognitivism theory, learning occurs when the student reorganises information, either by finding new explanations or adapting old ones. (eds.) Select appropriate applied information technologies to achieve instructional objectives. These theories, however, were developed in a time when learning was not impacted through technology. What areas of knowledge do you think would be best ‘taught’ or learned through a cognitivist approach? 11.2 Nine steps to quality teaching in a digital age, 11.3 Step One: Decide how you want to teach. These four sub-areas shape the nature of design practice in a wide variety of settings, and broadly define instructional design activity on both the macro and micro levels. Develop projected and non-projected graphic instructional materials. Design a comparative group study in a quasi-experimental design. Bloom and his colleagues claimed that there are three important domains of learning: Cognitivism focuses on the ‘thinking’ domain. Evaluate the appropriateness and adequacy of the assessment of learner/trainee characteristic. The key competencies can only be developed or demonstrated in contexts. Generate a needs assessment plan including selection of procedures and instruments. 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