The common porcupine is a large, short-legged rodent with up to 30,000 bare-tipped quills (modified hairs) covering the upper parts of the body and the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tail. Porcupines are usually broken up into two categories -- Old World or New World (Hystricidae or Erethizontidae). It is of the best quality among all the different grade category of porcupine bezoar stone and hence it is easy difficult to see why it is the most expensive type of porcupine bezoar dates . Many people consider porcupines to be a nuisance because of the damage they cause to trees and wooden structures. They come in different shades: gray, brown and the unusual white. These rodents are relatively large compared to the rest of the order Rodentia. There is no mistaking what you are seeing when a Porcupine comes into view. Most carnivores would not pass up a meal of porcupine. The nose is pink and large, and the eyes are small. Fossils dating to the Oligocene Epoch (33.7 million to 23.8 million years ago). That species is the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), which is also frequently referred to as the common porcupine. The Santa Marta porcupine (Coendou sanctamartae) is a rodent in the family Erethizontidae. Thirty million years ago, porcupines traveled across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to Brazil. The thick-spined porcupine (Hystrix crassispinis) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. In Oregon, the porcupine is found throughout most of the state east of the Cascade Range. The overall color of the porcupine is dark brown or blackish. Despite a very slow walking pace and a low reproductive rate, its coat of long, sharp quills enables the porcupine to live a long life by protecting it from predators. The Old World species have spines that are grouped into clusters, while the New World species have spines that are attached to the skin singly. The common porcupine is a large, short-legged rodent with up to 30,000 bare-tipped quills (modified hairs) covering the upper parts of the body and the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tail. Quills used in defense are replaced commencing about 10-42 days after loss. Blooded Porcupine Bezoar Stone. New World porcupines make up the Erethizontidae family, which comprises four genera and 12 species. Porcupines are the thi largest rodents in the world, and the second largest in North America. It is found in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua and Belize. The porcupine is one of the most interesting and unusual wildlife species in Minnesota. They have long claws to help them climb on tree trunks and also small branches. What animals can kill porcupines and how do they do it? Some use is made of dens in winter. Genus Erethizon (North American porcupine) 1 North American species. Different trees are chosen for resting than for feeding. Depending on where you live, it may be illegal to keep some species of porcupines. Today, the North American Porcupine happily ranges from Alaska through Canada and into Mexico. They all generally have the same diet of plant material. Photograph by Joel Sartore, National Geographic Photo … The black dwarf porcupine, also known as Koopman's porcupine, Coendou nycthemera, is a porcupine species from the New World porcupine family endemic to northern Brazil. Types of Porcupines Bahia ​Porcupine​. These large rodents are known to fight off enormous predators, and they feast on plants, shrubs and trees throughout the year. Types of Porcupine. It is known from dry forests on the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serranía del Perijá mountains of northern Colombia, at altitudes below 500 and 1100 m, respectively, and intervening lowlands, and may also be present in nearby parts of Venezuela. In the wild, their lifespan is around 6 to 8 years, but in captivity they may live up to 12 to 14 years. However, an encounter between a young inexperienced predator and a porcupine can be a very painful experience. Description. It is found in China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Porcupine. © Copyright 2016–2020 Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife. Salem, OR 97302 They have a short tail and gray brown quills and feed on fruits, ant pupae, vegetables and roots. All porcupines have a snout, slow, heavy form and a spiny coat. Main Phone (503) 947-6000 The two families of porcupines are quite different, and although both belong to the Hystricognathibranch of the v… Density of predators also determines time spent on the ground, because most porcupine predators are non-arboreal species. It is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sumatra, where it is hunted for food. They are broken down into two types of porcupines, which are Old World and New World porcupines. We report the discovery of a new species of Coendou (Rodentia, Erethizontidae), here designated Coendou speratus sp. Most are slow-moving, but some varieties in the Americas are agile climbers. The Cape porcupine or South African porcupine, (Hystrix africaeaustralis), is a species of Old World porcupine native to central and southern Africa. Do you want to enter your opinion about a specific issue into the public record? The Bahia porcupine, Coendou insidiosus, is a New World porcupine species in the family... Black Dwarf ​Porcupine​. The common porcupine has up to 30,000 quills. Current bird and wildlife viewing opportunities. The Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus macrourus) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. The Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae.It is endemic to Indonesia.. References. Porcupine | Pixabay Image Found in the Andes in Colombia and Venezuela, its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. There are 11 species, in three genera, of Old World porcupines in the Hystricidae family. Porcupines have tails measuring about eight to ten inches (20-25 cm) and a round body weighing anywhere from 12 to 60 pounds (5-27 kg). The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. The tail can be another 8 to 10 inches. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. They are well known for their dangerous quills that they can come out easily upon contact with the unknown visitor. There are 330 species of porcupine, and they may be brown, grey, or, rarely, white. It inhabits tropical forests at elevations up to 1500 m. The brown hairy dwarf porcupine (Coendou vestitus) is a species of rodent in the family Erethizontidae. Old World porcupines inhabit Africa and Asia, while New World porcupines are primarily found in the Americas. Visit the ODFW's agency site. Old World Porcupines – Hystricidae They are vegetarians. Most are dark colored, with lighter colored spines or spine tips. But, taking inspiration from the spiky rodent, researchers have begun to work on a new type … A porcupine has three types of hair: Underfur - This is the bottom layer, comprised of heavy, dark hair that keeps the animal warm. A fully grown adult weighs in the region of 2 kg (4 lb). The largest porcupine is the African Porcupine which can weigh over 20 kilograms (44 pounds). Contact: odfw.commission@state.or.us Cape porcupines are the largest rodents in Africa and also the world's largest porcupines. The quills are scattered among much … The smallest porcupine is the Rothschilds Porcupine from South America which weighs only 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds). The wei… nov. This porcupine is little known, but is probably arboreal, nocturnal and solitary like its relatives. Family Hystricidae (Old World porcupines) 11 species in 3 genera. The Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) or South African porcupine, is a species of Old World porcupine native to central and southern Africa. There are dozens of species of porcupines in the world. In length this porcupine reaches only 38 centimeters. Other major reason is … Can’t find what you need? In Oregon, there is only one, the common porcupine.Â. The brush-tailed porcupine occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo and Uganda, in tropical rainforest at altitudes up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Most of them appear to be dark brown to black, however some of the hairs and quills on the backs of porcupines are yellow. Porcupine is a spine-covered mammal belonging in the Order: Rodentia. Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia. In addition to plant material, porcupines crave salt and are attracted to objects that have salty human sweat on them, such as ax handles, boat oars, etc. What are the natural predators of porcupines. During warm months, porcupines eat leaves, buds, nuts, fruit, twigs, and green plants. As soon as the quills are dry, a new-born porcupine can defend itself from some predators. Before You Pet A Porcupine: There are 29 species of porcupines and for various reasons not all of them can be kept as pets. The quills are arranged in rows across the body, the longest quills are on the rump, the shortest on the face. They seemingly are intelligent and are able to learn quickly; they have good memories and especially remember being mistreated. A Mexican hairy dwarf porcupine (Sphiggurus mexicanus) photographed at Knoxville Zoo in Tennessee. There are 29 species of porcupines classified in eight genera. At least three species of … The soles are naked. The Bahia porcupine, Coendou insidiosus, is a New World porcupine species in the family Erethizontidae endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. When climbing, the porcupine uses the stiff bristles on the undersurface of the tail as support. They serve as a shield, protecting sensitive areas on the back and tail. They can be from 25 to 36 inches long. The North American porcupine can live for 23 years, while South America's prehensile-tailed porcupine can go four years longer. The Andean porcupine (Coendou quichua) is a species of rodent in the family Erethizontidae. ODFW staff will be available by phone and email. The front feet have four toes, the rear feet five; all have strong, curved claws. Oh, it's also the symbol for the Libertarian Party of Nevada. Porcupine Quillwork The Parallel or Band Technique contributed by Nancy Fonicello; Quilled Rosette made by Nancy using the Single-quill Parallel-fold or Band Technique. This is the classification of the North American porcupine, according to Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS):Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Superclass: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalia Subclass… During the winter, they chew through the outer tree bark to eat the tissue-like inner bark. It occurs in the Amazon rainforest east of the Madeira River and south of the Amazon River. Their most vulnerable spot is the exposed underfur on their stomachs. There are many kinds of porcupines in the world and 21 species to be exact. The weight of the porcupine depends on the species and varies from 1.2 to 35 kilograms. The families differ in their genetic relation, quill formation and also other various physiological variations. Porcupines do not hibernate and are active throughout the year. Porcupines have r… View all of the Porcupine images! It's part of the logo for the Free State Project, which actually led to a more organized usage. Blood porcupine gallstone (date ) stones are usually found in fully mature porcupine and is less readily available. Erethizon dorsatum. The synonyms of this species are Atherurus assamensis (Thomas, 1921), and Atherurus macrourus (Thomas, 1921) subspecies assamensis. (800) 720-6339, Do you have a question or comment for ODFW? Guard Hairs - These long, rough strands grow atop the underfur. It was formerly sometimes assigned to Sphiggurus, a genus no longer recognized since genetic studies showed it to be polyphyletic. head. The black dwarf porcupine, also known as Koopman's porcupine, Coendou nycthemera, is a... Brown … The Philippine porcupine, Indonesian porcupine, or Palawan porcupine (Hystrix pumila) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae (Old World porcupines) endemic to the island of Palawan in the Philippines. At first, the idea of using porcupine quills to patch up wounds sounds torturous. Porcupines are a type of rodent. There are 12 "New World" species in North, Central and South America. The smallest porcupine is a dwarf porcupine, inhabiting the lands of Brazil, Bahia. Porcupine. The quills are scattered among much longer, course guard hairs; the underfur is woolly. The Mexican hairy dwarf porcupine or Mexican tree porcupine (Coendou mexicanus) is a species of rodent in the family Erethizontidae. Types of Porcupines There are 29 species of porcupine which are separated into two families: old world porcupines (Hystricidae) and new world porcupines (Erethizontidae) each containing three genera. Although there are numerous different species of porcupines in existence, only one roams throughout the United States, according to the National Geographic. Growth is slow, but the porcupine matures in its second fall and can look forward to a life span of up to ten years in the wild unless a person or some other predator kills it. Porcupines vary in size considerably: Rothschild's porcupine of South America weighs less than a kilogram (2.2 lb); the crested porcupine found in Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa can grow to well over 27 kg (60 lb). Beginning March 23, all ODFW offices will be closed to visitors. The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica), or Indian porcupine, is a large species of hystricomorph rodent (order Rodentia) belonging to the Old World porcupine family, Hystricidae. Seen here, the libertarian porcupine icon designed by Kevin Breen in 2006 mimics the Republican Elephant and Democratic Donkey. Large, slow-moving rodents, porcupines are found on every continent except Antarctica. The Brazilian porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) is a porcupine found in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, the Guyanas, Bolivia and Trinidad, with a single record from Ecuador. Genus Echinoprocta (stump-tailed porcupine) 1 Colombian species. For example, the fact that they are classified as rodents.They are the 3rd largest of all rodents in the world. Activity is mostly nocturnal or crepuscular, but those feeding in trees may be observed at any time as they usually do not retire to dens during the daylight hours. The crested porcupine is a terrestrial mammal; they very seldom climb trees, but can swim. Porcupines will spend winter in dens, usually rock dens where available. They slowly evolved and quickly migrated throughout North and South America. Porcupines weigh about 12 to 35 pounds and are rounded and large. Updated weekly by wildlife biologists throughout the state. Keeping some could turn out to be quite expensive in the long run. Contact ODFW's Public Service Representative at: odfw.info@state.or.us. It is native to southern Asia and the Middle East. Porcupines make a variety of vocalizations and sounds with the teeth, some which can be heard at considerable distance. West of the Cascades, it is found in only a few scattered localities. It is known locally as durian or landak. They live in a range of habitats from tropical to temperate forests and grasslands of Asia, Europe, Africa, and America. They are both very similar in appearance. Genus Hystrix (short-tailed porcupines) 8 species (6 Asian, 2 African). It is endemic to the island of Borneo and found in Brunei, ... Orange-​Spined Hairy Dwarf Porcupine​. Porcupines are mammals. Some species can be well over 60 lbs., and over 2.5 ft. long. A porcupine is any of 58 species of rodents belonging to the families Erethizontidae (genera: Coendou, Erethizon, and Chaetomys) or Hystricidae (genera: Atherurus, Hystrix, and Trichys). The tails of these rodents also have different lengths, ranging from 20 to 30 centimeters. Porcupines vary in size considerably depending on species, however, they generally measure 60 – 90 centimetres (25 – 36 inches) in length (excluding tail which measures 20 – 25 centimetres (8 – 10 inches)) and weigh between 5 – 16 kilograms (12 – 35 pounds). All species are equipped with defensive spines, which protect them from predators. Many people don’t know much else about them though. Porcupines are the third largest rodent on the planet. How much of a threat are porcupines to surrounding animals? The Paraguaian hairy dwarf porcupine, Coendou spinosus, is a South American porcupine species from the family Erethizontidae. The Sumatran porcupine (Hystrix sumatrae) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. This small porcupine, locally known as coandumirim, is found in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre in the Atlantic coast of northeastern Brazil north of the São Francisco river, one of the most important known biodiversity hotspots. It is found in the Andes of Ecuador as well as from the Cordillera Oriental of northeastern Colombia near San Vicente de Chucurí. Porcupine attains its greatest abundance in mixed coniferous and hardwood forests. The bicolored-spined porcupine (Coendou bicolor) is a species of nocturnal and arboreal rodent in the family Erethizontidae. Common porcupine. The animal has long, curved front claws which also aid in climbing. They are nocturnal and monogamous. The stylized porcupine pictured here is one such representation. Porcupines are strict herbivores and virtually all species of trees found within a porcupine’s range are eaten. Rothschild's porcupine is a medium sized porcupine with a head-and-body length of between 332 and 420 mm (13.1 and 16.5 in) and a tail length of between 290 and 413 mm (11.4 and 16.3 in). Although the young porcupine suckles for a short time – three to seven weeks – it begins eating vegetation shortly after birth and soon is on its own. There are three species of porcupines designated as new world: the North American porcupine, the Brazilian porcupine, and the dwarf porcupine. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The crested porcupine takes care of the young for a long time and small family groups consist of the adult pair and young of various ages. 4034 Fairview Industrial Drive SE The single band technique is another type of quillwork technique that is easily mastered. When ground dens are not available, porcupines choose trees to rest in. Eat the tissue-like inner bark with the unknown visitor people consider porcupines to surrounding animals ODFW will! 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