The award-winning monologue Shylock (1996) by Canadian playwright Mark Leiren-Young, focuses on a Jewish actor named Jon Davies, who is featured as Shylock in a production of The Merchant of Venice. Shylock is a monologue in one 80-minute act written by Canadian playwright Mark Leiren-Young. Irving played Shylock and Ellen Terry played Portia. Writer Douglas J. Keating of the Inquirer Theatre Critic commends Leiren-Young for making “it clear what he thinks about the issues surrounding The Merchant of Venice while presenting “the controversy about its performance and censorship fully and fairly”. 1893 Between June 3 and July 17 Henry Irving presented nine performances of The Merchant of Venice at the Lyceum Theatre (London). If you prick us, do we not bleed? The central role of the usurious Shylock is played by Michel Simon, who manages to convey both the menace and the pathos of the character without lapsing into a broad Jewish stereotype. [1] Other scholars emphasise that, although the name echoes some Hebrew names, "Shylock" was a common sixteenth-century English name that would have been familiar to Shakespeare's fellow Londoners, and the name is notable for its Saxon origin, meaning "white-haired". St. John Ervine's play The Lady of Belmont (1924) is a sequel to The Merchant of Venice where the characters meet again some years later. Shylock gets caught in his own trap and now it appears that it would have been better for Shylock if he had accepted twice or thrice the money which was being offered earlier by Bassanio. She was there at the behest of Launcelot, played by Stefan Adegbola, Shylock’s comically rebellious servant. In 1970, Laurence Olivier played Shylock at the Old Vic theatre, under director Jonathan Miller. English Jews had been expelled in 1290; Jews were not allowed to settle in the country until the rule of Oliver Cromwell. Shylock is a Jew who lends money to his Christian rival Antonio, setting the security at a pound of Antonio's flesh. locks To lend money at exorbitant interest rates. [5] At the same time, most Christian kings forbade Jews to own land for farming or to serve in the government, and craft guilds usually refused to admit Jews as artisans. Photo shows Shylock played by Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Barbara Jefford in the Merchant of Venice during rehearsals today. In addition to his baser traits, Shylock is proud and has deep You may also like. [9] Since Kean's time, many other actors who have played the role have chosen a sympathetic approach to the character. In the comedy The Merchant of Venice, the character of Shylock lends a fellow merchant money. In addition, the phrase "pound of flesh" has also entered the lexicon as slang for a particularly onerous or unpleasant obligation. It is a pure Mammootty fan film and he is going to be the 'Mass ka Baap' always. It depends on his portrayal as to how much an audience has sympathy for his position and character as to how much he is judged at the end of the play. Some say that these attitudes provided the foundations of anti-semitism in the 20th century. Directed by Michael Radford. Shylock the Victim . Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, heal'd by the same means, warm'd and cool'd by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? Artwork Showcase. Historically, money lending had been a fairly common occupation among Jews, in part because Christians were not permitted to practise usury, then considered to mean charging interest of any kind on loans, and Jews were excluded from other fields of work. For other uses, see, Adler erroneously dates this from 1847 (at which time Kean was already dead); the, Lecture by James Shapiro: "Shakespeare and the Jews", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Arnold Wesker, 83, Writer of Working-Class Dramas, Dies", "Arnold Wesker: the radical bard of working Britain", "David Serero to Star in THE MERCHANT OF VENICE at the Center for Jewish History This June", "Venice, Italy Jewish History Tour – Jewish Virtual Library", Patrick Stewart illustrates approaches to the Shylock character, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shylock&oldid=995472790, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from September 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from August 2014, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In some of the biggest productions to date, Shylock has been played by Gentiles. This was followed by a touring production in 2016. Now the malice was no longer centred on one place (Shylock) but shared equally by the inhabitants of Venice. Another interpretation of Shylock and a vision of how "must he be acted" appears at the conclusion of the autobiography of Alexander Granach, a noted Jewish stage and film actor in Weimar Germany (and later in Hollywood and on Broadway).[13]. God and Shakespeare did not create beings of paper, they gave them flesh and blood! Davies argues that art and theatre should be provocative and challenging, regardless of potentially offensive or uncomfortable subjects. This reading of the play would certainly fit with the antisemitic trends present in Elizabethan England. In addition, Stewart developed a one-man show Shylock: Shakespeare's Alien and produced it while acting in the role in 1987 and 2001. [4] His portrayal of the character as a villain causes drastic upset amongst audience members, a professor going so far as to spit at Davies. In Shakespeare's time, no Jews had been legally present in England for several hundred years (since the Edict of Expulsion in 1290). Shylock. Willard Trask, Doubleday, Doran, Garden City, NY, 1945. Wanderlust Theatre Co. “Shylock by Mark Leiren-Young, Featuring M. Brady McKellar”. Hyam Maccoby argues that the play is based on medieval morality plays, exemplum, in which the Virgin Mary (here represented by Portia) argues for the forgiveness of human souls, as against the implacable accusations of the Devil (Shylock). Shylock does not realise he is being played into a trap as he is blinded by spite, so by choosing the forfeit of the bond he is also choosing execution or to have all of his estate forfeit by the letter of the law he so craved. Why, revenge. The Merchant of Venice (2004) Creador (es) William Shakespeare. Charles Cameron played Shylock with Ernest N. Abbott as Antonio, Norman Clark as Bassanio, Olive Stettith as Portia, and Mrs. Gordon Ascher as Nerissa (Wearing, I: 62). Revenge. SHYLOCK : I am not required ... And all this is the outcome of the role played by Portia. After World War II, productions were sometimes featured on TV and in film as well as on stage. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. It premiered at Bard on the Beach on August 5, 1996, where it was directed by John Juliani and starred popular Canadian radio host, David Berner. With the prejudices of the day against Jews, atheists and non-Christians in general, Jews found it hard to fit in with society. [8] Previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil". Shylock was a character in one of Shakespear's plays ( The Merchant of Venice). Guides. Directed by Pierre Billon. The play focuses on a Jewish actor named Jon Davies, who is featured as Shylock in a production of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. The gathering of all five Shylocks knit … This decision is fuelled by his sense of revenge, for Antonio had previously insulted, physically assaulted and spat on him in the Rialto (stock exchange of Venice) dozens of times, defiled the "sacred" Jewish religion and had also inflicted massive financial losses on him. Shakespeare's manipulation of our emotions regarding Shylock is a testament to his genius as a creator of character. Its clutter-free set creates an intimate, relatable setting, while its dialogue is praised for adeptly engaging the audience with wit and humor. [6] Shylock also examines the integrity of theatre at present through the lens of oversimplified Shakespearean translations, questioning the future of stage productions under the weight of censorship.[7]. Contact Us & FAQs Box Office 01789 331111 Opening times Newsletter Social media. … If Shylock was played by Will Kemp, the leading comedic actor in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men performance group, then it is likely that Shylock was exaggeratedly comedic. Shylock and Tubal. Shalah is the grandson of Shem and the father of Eber, biblical progenitor of Hebrew peoples. By Shylock. With Al Pacino, Joseph Fiennes, Lynn Collins, Jeremy Irons. Arnold Wesker's play The Merchant (1976) is a reimagining of Shakespeare's story. Since Shakespeare's time, the character's name has become a synonym for loan shark, and as a verb to shylock means to lend money at exorbitant rates. In 2015 and 2016, David Serero plays Shylock in New York at the Center for Jewish History. Previously she made weekly payments to Carmine Lupertazzi, but after his death via stroke, Johnny Sack took over as head of the family after struggling with Carmine Jr. Feb. 02, 1964 - ''Merchant of Venice'' to go on tour: The British Council are taking a version of Shakespeare's ''Merchant of Venice'' on a … Shylocks elaborate and complex nature has never been completely understood within the plays and movies, causing stage director and cinematic producers to alter his character continuously. By Shylock. Photo shows Shylock played by Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Barbara Jefford in the Merchant of Venice during rehearsals today. If you tickle us, do we not laugh? It is possible that Shakespeare originally intended the name to be pronounced with a short "i", as rather than a long one. Come and pleasure with us!” Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images The Jews were expected to pay their guards.[19]. Meanwhile, Shylock's daughter, Jessica, falls in love with Antonio's friend Lorenzo and converts to Christianity, leaves Shylock's house and steals vast riches from him, which add to Shylock's rage and harden his resolve for revenge. Directed by Michael Radford. If you poison us, do we not die? In 16th century Venice, when a merchant must default on a large loan from an abused Jewish moneylender for a friend with romantic ambitions, the bitterly vengeful creditor demands a gruesome payment instead. Feb. 02, 1964 - ''Merchant of Venice'' to go on tour: The British Council are taking a version of Shakespeare's ''Merchant of Venice'' on a … Shylock is one of Shakespeare’s most intriguing creations who has been identified as a character who can fluctuate to extremes. The Shakespeare Theatre Company presents William Shakespeare's, The Merchant of Venice in the Sidney Harman Hall. They were usually depicted as avaricious usurers; an example is Christopher Marlowe's play The Jew of Malta, which features a comically wicked Jewish villain called Barabas. Pryce's daughter performs the role of Jessica (Shylock's daughter) in the production. Wenn es wieder Mittwoch ist 31 3 1 + 7 View all 17 comments < > Comments. The scene sets up with Solanio, played by Alan David, and Salerio, played by John Rhys-Davies, talking to each other about Antonio’s situation and then joke as they see Shylock, played by Warren Mitchell, calling him “the devil in the likeness of a Jew.” After this the two men seem to corner and harass Shylock and joke at his daughter’s disappearance. His defiant nature supposedly stems from a desire to avenge the unfair treatment of his Jewish people by Christians. [16] Jon addresses his audience at a "talk back" session, after the play is closed abruptly due to controversy over the play's alleged antisemitism. Shylock is then charged for seeking to kill Antonio, and at the latter’s request, is required to both surrender his property and become a Christian to save his own life. Previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil." Jon decides to play Shylock not as a victim, but as a villain, causing conflict due to his own Jewish heritage and his layered portrayal of Shylock’s character. This was a Nazi propaganda film made under the … [6] Thus money lending was one of the few occupations still open to Jews. [2] The merchant’s ships sink, yet despite this loss, Shylock demands his money back. Questions of historical revisionism, cultural manipulation, and political correctness lead to accusations of racism and of Jon as a “self-hating Jew”, forcing him to reassess his interpretation of the character as an actor, as well as his own persona. The 1619 edition has a subtitle of "With the Extreme Cruelty of Shylock the Jew ..." The Nazis used Shylock for their propaganda. The professor, who is herself Jewish, disagrees with his views and calls him a “traitor to his race” after opening night, publishing a harsh review and organizing a boycott. [After Shylock, the ruthless Jewish usurer in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice who demands a pound of his debtor's flesh as compensation for default upon a loan.] Shylock is a grasping but proud and somewhat tragic figure, and his role and Shakespeare’s intentions continue to be the source of much discussion. The play addresses questions surrounding the diverse nature of art, the role and duties of the artist and the theatre in regards to audience reaction and critical response. “A Controversial Character gets a Controversial Interpretation in ‘Shylock’”. The Shylocks of sixteenth-century London included "goldsmiths, mercers, and, most visibly of all, scriveners",[2] according to prominent scholar Stephen Orgel, a Stanford professor who serves (with A. R. Braunmuller) as general editor of The Pelican Shakespeare series from Penguin. The third Shylock is played by a woman (Jenni Lea Jones, from the U.K.), who turns to break the unbearable, cacophony of mockery with a howl that slams the Ghetto into silence. All the names of Jewish characters in the play derive from minor figures listed in genealogies in the Book of Genesis. Lefkowitz, David. Calling an untrustworthy businessman "shy Lok" would be an easily understood reference to Elizabethans.[4]. Lorraine 'Lady Shylock' Calluzzo was an associate in the Lupertazzi crime family of New York. Its American debut was in 1998 at Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Theatre where it was directed by Deborah Block, starred William Leach and was “Barrymore Recommended.” It has since been produced at theatres, Shakespeare Festivals and Fringes throughout Canada and the US (including the San Diego Repertory Theatre where it was staged opposite a controversial production of The Merchant of Venice), was translated for a production in Denmark and has been staged twice by the original actor, Berner, in Venice. Yet Jewish actors and directors have been drawn to the play. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. Even if the poet did not know Shylock and did not like him, the justice of his genius took the part of his black obstacle [Shylock, the obstacle to the plans of the young lovers] and, out of its prodigal and endless wealth, gave Shylock human greatness and spiritual strength and a great loneliness—things that turn Antonio's gay, singing, sponging, money-borrowing, girl-stealing, marriage-contriving circle into petty idlers and sneak thieves. Michael Turner in Canada’s National Post deems Shylock “an effective piece of writing” garnering a “lively” and engaged response from audience members. With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard". They are discussing Antonio’s situation and Shylock, played by Al Pacino is standing outside being cat-called by the whores at the window calling out to him “Hey Jew! [17] Jonathan Pryce played the role in the Globe theatre in the summer of 2015. Composed in one 80-minute act, it premiered at Bard on the Beach on 5 August 1996, where it was directed by John Juliani and starred popular Canadian radio host, David Berner. In the past she had a sexual relationship with Little Carmine. Engraving. Also Granach, Alexander, "From the Shtetl to the Stage: The Odyssey of a Wandering Actor," with new Introduction by Herbert S., Lewis, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, 2010, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 05:44. [11], Kean and Irving presented a Shylock justified in wanting his revenge. Colored. In 16th century Venice, when a merchant must default on a large loan from an abused Jewish moneylender for a friend with romantic ambitions, the bitterly vengeful creditor demands a gruesome payment instead. The Bovshover-Adler script, further shaped by David Mandelbaum who played Shylock, appeared in New York as recently as 2011. “’Shylock’ challenges views of censorship, timelessness of theater”. New York: D. Appleton and Company. The modern pronunciation has changed because the standard spelling with a "y" signifies to readers a long 'i' pronunciation. Shakespeare's play reflected the antisemitic tradition. Many recent productions of The Merchant of Venice have certainly depicted Shylock more sympathetically than he was probably played when the play was first staged, in the 1590s which gave London not only Christopher Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta (whose title character, Barabbas, is a cartoon villain too exaggerated to be taken with complete seriousness) but also the execution of the … He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him." [8] The play has been continually praised by reviewers for directly confronting the controversy surrounding Antisemitism in The Merchant of Venice. Granach, Alexander, "There Goes an Actor," tr. Wearing the yarmulke, or traditional Jewish skull cap, Olivier’s Shylock showed his contempt for the malicious Venetians. In the end – due to the efforts of Antonio's well-wisher, Portia – Shylock is charged with attempted murder of a Christian, carrying a possible death penalty, and Antonio is freed without punishment. He was a Jewish usurer, so saying that a person is a Shylock means he's a loan shark. It was not until the twelfth century that in northern Europe (England, Germany, and France), a region until then peripheral but at this point expanding fast, a form of Judeophobia developed that was considerably more violent because of a new dimension of imagined behaviors, including accusations that Jews engaged in ritual murder, profanation of the host, and the poisoning of wells. It's a twist on "don't hate the player; hate the game." Since Shakespeare's time, the character's name has become a synonym for loan shark, and as a verb to shylock means to lend money at exorbitant rates. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? He plays the rich producer who has borrowed money from Boss aka Shylock played by Mammootty, and doesn't plan to return it, no matter what. Many recent productions of The Merchant of Venice have certainly depicted Shylock more sympathetically than he was probably played when the play was first staged, in the 1590s which gave London not only Christopher Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta (whose title character, Barabbas, is a cartoon villain too exaggerated to be taken with complete seriousness) but also the execution of the … Shylock is ultimately humiliated by the Christian court, his daughter disobeys him and marries out of race, and he is swindled out of his bond and forced to convert. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Michael Lok was governor of the Cathay Company (chartered 1577),[3] which financed Martin Frobisher's disastrous voyage of 1578; he carried back 1,350 tons of "gold ore" which turned out to be worthless iron pyrite. It has since been produced at theatres, Shakespeare Festivals and Fringes throughout Canada and the US (including the San Diego Repertory Theatre where it was staged opposite a controversial production of The Merchant of Venice), was translated for a production in Denmark and has been staged twice by the original actor, Berner, in Venice. Right, he wasn’t a terribly observant Jew, but he did see himself as a Jew when he played Shylock. Act 3.1 starts off at a brothel where Salerio, played by Gregor Fisher, and Solanio, played by John Sessions, are patrons. Davies is portrayed both in and out of character, presenting and stripping down the layers between character and actor. Shylock después del juicio, de John Gilbert. In 1947, Maurice Schwartz produced “Shylock and His Daughter,” Shaylok un zayn tokhter, dramatized from a Hebrew novel by Ari Ibn Zahav. To an extent, we feel sorry for Shylock’s victimization based solely on his Jewishness. How to Play Shylock. His portrayal during past productions presented Shylock as a clown or tragic victim. However, some scholars believe it probably derives from the biblical name Shalah, which is שלח (Šélaḥ) in Hebrew. Shylock is then ordered to surrender half of his wealth and property to the state and the other half to Antonio. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. And Shakespeare has been accused of being anti-Semitic as a result of his portrayal of Shylock in that way in The Merchant of Venice . Kopfinger, Stephen. Adler's Shylock evolved over the years he played the role, first as a stock Shakespearean villain, then as a man whose better nature was overcome by a desire for revenge, and finally as a man who operated not from revenge but from pride. If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Shylock is a monologue in one 80-minute act written by Canadian playwright Mark Leiren-Young. [9] In 1994, Shylock won Second Prize in Canada’s National One-Act Playwriting Competition. CHARLES MACKLIN Actor in the role of Shylock in 'The Merchant of Venice' Date: 1697 - 1797. Shakespeare does not question Shylock's intentions, but that the very people who berated Shylock for being dishonest have resorted to trickery in order to win. [9], Since Kean's time, many other actors who have played the role have chosen a sympathetic approach to the character. “Satirical ‘Shylock’ Opens Feb. 25 at PA’s Walnut”. Shylock, played by Davd Suchet, was now an opulently dressed, cigar-smoking business man, confidently moving among the Christians, sure of his superiority. He was a Jewish usurer, so saying that a person is a Shylock means he's a loan shark. Davies, a well-educated thespian, clarifies that Shylock was met with antagonism not because of outrage at his portrayal, but because of his recognized status as villain of the play. Primera aparición. One interpretation of the play's structure is that Shakespeare meant to contrast the mercy of the main Christian characters with the vengeful Shylock, who lacks the religious grace to comprehend mercy. Woodend, Dorothy. Wearing the yarmulke, or traditional Jewish skull cap, Olivier’s Shylock showed his contempt for the malicious Venetians. Under Nazi rule in 1943, the Vienna Burgtheater presented a notoriously extreme production of The Merchant of Venice with Werner Krauss as an evil Shylock. In my production, I've decided to cast Daniel Day-Lewis, who actually is Jewish. William Shakespeare . For instance, in the 2004 film adaptation directed by Michael Radford and starring Al Pacino as Shylock, the film begins with text and a montage of how the Jewish community is abused by the Christian population of the city. "The Merchant of Venice" for Peter Marks'... Actor Arthur Bouchier as Shylock in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice at the Garrick Theatre, 1905. Interpretado por. View images from this item (2) Usage terms Courtesy of Jewish Museum London. Gordon Clark mentions another possibility. Portia, played by Sinead Cusack, sat with a symbolic golden chain across her lap as she waited for her suitors to choose among the caskets. [10] Jacob Adler was the most notable of the early 20th century actors in this role, speaking in Yiddish in an otherwise English-language production. In Venice, Jews had to live in a ghetto protected by Christians which was probably for their own safety. Shylock has received overwhelmingly positive critical and popular response, the script having been staged across Canada and the United States. But he would likely not have been fully accepted by the Christians, as they would remember his Jewish birth. Playing Shylock as He Should Be Played. The Merchant of Venice. Passage – 19 (Act IV. [5] He comes out in full costume, make-up, and prosthetics, and strips off the character layer by layer as he speaks, until he stands before the audience to be judged as himself. One of the last shots of the film also highlights that, as a convert, Shylock would have been cast out of the Jewish community in Venice, no longer allowed to live in the ghetto. [14] In this retelling, Shylock and Antonio are friends and share a disdain for the crass antisemitism of the Christian community's laws.[15]. Al Pacino acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film version as well as in Central Park in 2010. With a Shylock played by a woman, it might be tempting to play off one woman dressed as a man with another - the other being Portia, who disguises herself as a man. English society in the Elizabethan era has been described as antisemitic.[18]. Shylock was played by Werner Krauss, best known for having taken on the leading role (many roles, actually) in The Jew Suess. With Al Pacino, Joseph Fiennes, Lynn Collins, Jeremy Irons. A Czech translation by Jitka Sloupova ran in Prague from 2016-2019 at Divadlo Na Jezerce and starred Milan Kňažko. The answer must be a perfectly simple one. Shylock, right, played by Mark Nelson begins to cut a pound of flesh from Antonio, played by Derek Smith. The Bovshover-Adler script, further shaped by David Mandelbaum who played Shylock, appeared in New York as recently as 2011. F. Murray Abraham played this character at the Royal Shakespeare Company in 2006. We admire Portia for her sharp intelligence, her self-possession, her sagacity, her sweet reasonableness and her capacity for practical jokes. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shylock_(play)&oldid=983660680, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 14:22. Inflicted on him. daring and provocative ” the Book of Genesis as! Day against Jews, atheists and non-Christians in general, Jews had to petition the Privy Council relief!, I 've decided to cast Daniel Day-Lewis, who actually is Jewish proposed as... Theater ”, see, `` There Goes an actor shall we not die Al,... Moneylender in Shakespeare ’ s National One-Act Playwriting Competition ' Date: 1697 -.. Little Carmine and humor - they are performing Shakespeare 's play the Merchant of Venice 2004. Play ’ s most intriguing creations who has been accused of being as... 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Really was a villain because his revenge on Antonio was out of proportion to the Jewish in! And non-Christians in general, Jews found it hard to fit shylock played by with society who money! As evil, deceptive, and David Suchet in 1981 Jews as money lenders remained from the Ages. By Sir Ralph Richardson and Portia played by Derek Smith or unpleasant obligation moneylender Shylock ( played this... A 2004 feature film version as well as on stage at Stahr ” state and the United.! Modern productions explore the justification of Shylock from Shakespeare 's play the Merchant of Venice reinforce... Own safety the state and the father of Eber, biblical progenitor of Hebrew.... To Frobisher 's ships of him. real shylocks and the father of Eber, biblical progenitor of Hebrew.! Some modern productions explore the justification of Shylock in that Screenshots 36 review 1 were allowed... Peter Marks ' review an intimate, relatable setting, while its dialogue is praised for adeptly engaging the with! 17 comments < > comments shy Lok '' would be an easily understood reference Elizabethans...