Products include culinary herbs, spices and baking flavors; bulk herbs and spices; and natural and organic aromatherapy products. Upon the entry of the inorganic form of Hg (Hg2+) via non-specific porin proteins, the first protein to bind it is MerP, a small periplasmic chaperone. These concerns are associated with the heavy metals used in manufacturing weapons; most heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persist in the environment. In bacteria, Cr has no metabolic role and thus, it is toxic in several species such as Pantoea spp., Aeromonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., and E. coli (Nies, 1999). Food Microbiol. FEMS Microbiol. Multidrug-resistant acinetobacter extremity infections in soldiers. Five Cr resistance mechanisms are reported (Camargo et al., 2005; Joutey et al., 2015). Metal Complexes as Antimicrobial Agents. Dunham, W. (2019). In A. baumannii, WGS analysis revealed the role of two integrases in the excision and circularization of heavy metal resistance (GIs) in E. coli (Al-Jabri et al., 2018). This project was part of the War, AntiMicrobial Resistance, and Acinetobacter baumannii (WAMRA) consortium and was supported by the Medical Practice Plan, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut. VISIT OUR WEBSITE. doi: 10.1128/jb.01494-07, Levinson, H. S., Mahler, I., Blackwelder, P., and Hood, T. (1996). Updated: Sat, Dec 12, 2020 12:56 PM. 59, 7–14. Technol. These mechanisms are encoded by resistant genes to heavy metals and antimicrobial agents that are physically linked on mobile genetic elements (Seiler and Berendonk, 2012; Yu et al., 2017). Relat. (2017). Toxicol. Inhibition of the bioavailability of heavy metals in sewage sludge biochar by adding two stabilizers. S3-001, 1–19. The major list of heavy metals includes: Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Antimony (Sb), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Silver (Ag), and Tungsten (W) (ATSDR, 2011). Cd, Hg, Ag, Pb, and Zn can be trapped on cysteine-rich MT polypeptides that provide tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals. It usually vaporizes upon firing and thus, Pb fumes and dust are inhaled, leading to brain damage, anemia, and high blood pressure (Abadin et al., 2007; Dermatas and Chrysochoou, 2007). Basal levels of efflux are usually not sufficient to confer heavy metal resistance in most bacterial species. We specialize in sustainably sourced and organic products, including herbs, spices, teas, essential oils and aromatherapy body care. doi: 10.3390/genes9070366, Alvarez, A. H., Moreno-Sanchez, R., and Cervantes, C. (1999). The following message was posted on Frontiers Music Srl‘s Facebook page earlier yesterday: “Frontiers Music Srl is pleased to announce the signing of singer James Durbin to the label for a multi-album deal under the moniker ‘Durbin’. The former encodes an intracellular ATPase which binds ArsB to form an ArsA-ArsB ATPase Efflux Pump, while the latter is a metallochaperone that binds and delivers As3+ and Sb3+ to ArsA-ArsB complex for efflux, in addition to its role as a trans-activating co-repressor of the ars operon along with ArsR (Silver and Phung le, 2005; Paez-Espino et al., 2009; Hobman and Crossman, 2014). J. Clin. Microbiol. Front. This is fulfilled via several mechanisms: (1) Decreasing bacterial susceptibility to metals by introducing mutations in resistance genes or determinants, or increasing the expression of the metal target site. Enjoy spices, herbs and teas with authentic flavor and sustainable sourcing. Molecular analysis of the copper-transporting efflux system CusCFBA of Escherichia coli. 233, 45–69. First, Cu1+/Cu2+ enter the bacterial cell via non-specific porin proteins. Heavy metals and living systems: an overview. Trends Microbiol. For example, Hg2+ is reduced to a less toxic Hg0 form via Mercury(II) reductase encoded by merA gene (Seiler and Berendonk, 2012; Pal et al., 2017). This resulted in increased bacterial resistance to As via oxidation, reduction, methylation, efflux, and intracellular sequestration on cysteine-rich peptides (Silver and Phung le, 2005; Paez-Espino et al., 2009), and was associated with detrimental health effects ranging from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorders, gastro-intestinal symptoms, hematological disorders, diabetes, neurological, and developmental anomalies (Chou et al., 2007; Tchounwou et al., 2012). Z., Plesiat, P., and Nikaido, H. (2015). Figure 6. (2011). Toxicol. Delmar, J. tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals via MT trapping mechanisms (Olafson et al., 1988; Naik et al., 2012). Syndromol. doi: 10.1007/s11738-009-0455-4. Dis. CusS, a histidine kinase, is activated upon Cu/Ag stimulation, while CusR is a DNA-binding transcriptional activator that activates cusCFBA expression. It consists of an inner membranous Cu1+ exporting P-type ATPase (CopA) and a periplasmic multi-Cu Oxidase (CueO). doi: 10.1074/jbc.m312080200, Pradhan, S., Singh, N., Bhagwat Prasad, R., and Thatoi, H. N. (2016). Multidrug resistant acinetobacter. A zinc-binding site in the largest subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is involved in enzyme assembly. (2014). Mol. Sci. The use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War has been confirmed by the United Nations. Microb. doi: 10.1590/S1517-838220120004000047, Lin, J., Michel, L. O., and Zhang, Q. The Cue system is activated at low Cu concentrations and under aerobic conditions. Front. At Frontier Steel Company, Inc. we specialize in suppling a variety of steel, metal roofing, custom buildings and building components. The benefits of whole-genome sequencing now and in the future. For example, in Cu-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs, tcrB and genes encoding resistance to erythromycin and vancomycin are encoded on the same conjugative plasmid (Hasman and Aarestrup, 2002; Silveira et al., 2014). J. Environ. The Pco proteins are involved in periplasmic copper handling in Escherichia coli. Eng. J. Microbiol. R-plasmid transfer in soil and water. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/emergencyresponsecard_29750006.html (accessed April 01, 2019). They have high electrical conductivity, malleability, metallic luster, and are capable of transferring electrons to form Cations (Jarup, 2003; Appenroth, 2010; Tchounwou et al., 2012). J. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9695-y, Kourtesi, C., Ball, A. R., Huang, Y.-Y., Jachak, S. M., Vera, D. M., Khondkar, P., et al. Res. For example, Hg2+, Ag1+, and Cd2+ can form covalent bonds with sulfhydryl functional groups (R-SH) present in enzymatic active sites thereby inducing structural conformational changes, and thus blocking their function (Rouch et al., 1995). merT is the most prevalent gene within the mer operon as compared to merC and merF. The dsbA-dsbB disulfide bond formation system of Burkholderia cepacia is involved in the production of protease and alkaline phosphatase, motility, metal resistance, and multi-drug resistance. 3:349. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00349, Branco, R., Chung, A. P., Johnston, T., Gurel, V., Morais, P., and Zhitkovich, A. doi: 10.2174/1874285801307010034, Lee, S. M., Grass, G., Rensing, C., Barrett, S. R., Yates, C. J., Stoyanov, J. V., et al. Molecular genetics and transport analysis of the copper-resistance determinant (pco) from Escherichia coli plasmid pRJ1004. Cu resistance via the Cue and Cus systems are detailed in Figure 1. CmeABC functions as a multidrug efflux system in Campylobacter jejuni. Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Vibrio harveyi, Shewanella spp., and Bacillus spp., can precipitate Pb as phosphate salts (Levinson et al., 1996; Smeaton et al., 2009; Shin et al., 2012). doi: 10.1007/bf02427385, Miranda, A. T., Gonzalez, M. V., Gonzalez, G., Vargas, E., Campos-Garcia, J., and Cervantes, C. (2005). doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.023036-0, Huang, Z., Lu, Q., Wang, J., Chen, X., Mao, X., and He, Z. Assess. Microbiol. 295, 616–620. The major list of heavy metals includes: Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Antimony (Sb), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Silver (Ag), and Tungsten (W) (ATSDR, 2011). For example, Streptomyces acidiscabies can sequester Ni via hydroxamate siderophores while Clostridium thermoaceticum use sulfide to sequester Cd (Cunningham et al., 1993; Dimkpa et al., 2008). In general, the use of heavy metals in weapons has increased since the end of World War II (Gebka et al., 2016). Infect. PcoD is an inner membrane Cu transporter that is involved in Cu uptake. (5) Pb extrusion via efflux pumps. Bacterial resistance to lead. Mortal. Dhakephalkar, P. K., and Chopade, B. 79, 129–133. J. Microbiol. (3) Repairing DNA damage upon the activation of an SOS response which is the case of Cr-induced DNA lesions (Frohlich, 2013; Maret, 2015). doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldg032, Joutey, N. T., Sayel, H., Bahafid, W., and El Ghachtouli, N. (2015). Available at: https://www.bevfitchett.us/ballistics/priming-compounds-and-primers-introduction.html, Fournier, P. E., Richet, H., and Weinstein, R. A. Contam. Chromium resistance strategies and toxicity: what makes Ochrobactrum tritici 5bvl1 a strain highly resistant. 82, 6174–6188. Copper and zinc, biological role and significance of copper/zinc imbalance. When Cr6+ enter the bacterial cell, it interacts with reducing agents such as Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) and Ascorbic Acid to produce free radicals and unstable Cr intermediates (Cr4+ and Cr5+) that are further reduced to Cr3+. Primary- and secondary-structural analysis of a unique prokaryotic metallothionein from a Synechococcus sp. The Cus system consists of 4 genes forming the cusCFBA operon, which is regulated by a two-component regulatory system (CusS/CusR) (Franke et al., 2003; Silver and Phung le, 2005; Pal et al., 2017). Drug Metab. $46.00. In the wake of recent conflicts in Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Afghanistan, the Middle East has become one of the most polluted regions with Hg (Gworek et al., 2017). JAMA 219, 1044–1047. In 1918, two organic As compounds, Lewisite (C2H2AsCl3) and Adamsite (C12H9AsClN) were developed by the US army as chemical weapons; both are classified as potential bioterrorism agents by CDC (2013). Bacterial WGS and typing databases such as BacWGSTdb (PMID: 26433226)1 serve as easy, rapid, powerful, and convenient tools to assess AMR and provide valuable information to WGS analysis and daily use in the clinical microbiology laboratories (Ruan and Feng, 2016). This form is volatile at room temperature; it diffuses outside the membranes allowing the bacterial cell to escape Hg toxicity (Nies, 1999; Silver and Phung le, 2005; Boyd and Barkay, 2012; Hobman and Crossman, 2014). However, changes in expression, either through mutations in promoter regions or efflux pump regulators, or inactivation of repressors, can lead to the over-expression of an efflux pump or confer resistance (Li et al., 2015; Blanco et al., 2016). doi: 10.1007/s10534-011-9446-1, Naik, M. M., Pandey, A., and Dubey, S. K. (2012). Eur. On the other hand, non-essential heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, and As have no known biological functions and are toxic even at low concentrations (ATSDR, 2011; Singh R. et al., 2011; Tchounwou et al., 2012). We can't find products matching the selection. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523544113, Gebka, K., Beldowski, J., and Beldowska, M. (2016). 87 talking about this. Res. Get the inside scoop on jobs, salaries, top office locations, and CEO insights. In humans, Hg has no biological role and at very low concentrations it is fatal, leading to brain, lung, and kidney failure (Risher and Rob, 1999). The mer operon is present on plasmids and transposons and consists of a cluster of 8 genes merTPCAGBDE regulated by MerR (Silver and Phung le, 2005; Hobman and Crossman, 2014). doi: 10.1128/CMR.00117-14. 26 Braz. View all (2012). doi: 10.1021/es901629c, Subramanian, S. (2018). While Cr3+ is naturally present in the environment, Cr6+ is mostly produced by industrial processes such as mining, electroplating, dye production, and leather tanning (Ahemad, 2014; Joutey et al., 2015; Pradhan et al., 2016). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. J. Bacteriol. Lead resistance in micro-organisms. However, many bacteria developed Cr resistance via 5 reported mechanisms that are mostly plasmid encoded (Camargo et al., 2005; Joutey et al., 2015). . Res. Heavy metals are a group of non-biodegradable metals and semi-metals (Metalloids) with high atomic weight and a density greater than 5 g/cm3. Fans of heavy metal revivalists like Haunt, Eternal Champion, Sumerlands, Enforcer, and the like, as well as hard rock and classic heavy metal fans in general are in for a treat!”, Copyright © 2020 | WordPress Theme by MH Themes, Ex-Quiet Riot frontman James Durbin to release “heavy metal” based album via Frontiers in early 2021. Res. 79, 96–115. 15, 243–262. Zn plays role in DNA and RNA polymerases catalytic functions (Markov et al., 1999). 578, 202–209. The mercury resistance operon: from an origin in a geothermal environment to an efficient detoxification machine. In humans, Cu is essential for blood vessel elasticity, brain development, maintenance of immune responses, and neurotransmitter production (Dorsey et al., 2004; Copper Development Association, 2018). Appl. This induces the up-regulation of antioxidants enzymes that scavenge ROS and protect cellular compartments (Ahemad, 2014; Joutey et al., 2015; Pradhan et al., 2016). (2002). Cunningham, D. P., Leon, L., and Lundie, J. R. (1993). Plasmid 52, 182–202. Moreover, “BacMet: Antibacterial Biocide and Metal Resistance Genes Database” provides an accurate and high quality resource of bacterial genes associated with heavy metal resistance present in literature2. Rev. Bacterial resistance to As is mainly encoded by efflux via the ars operon, which can be plasmid or chromosomally driven, even though it can also be encoded by other genetic determinants such as arr genes and aox genes (Figure 4; Silver and Phung le, 2005; Paez-Espino et al., 2009). In the following sections, we will briefly discuss these mechanisms. Lett. doi: 10.1007/s11999-008-0212-9, Camargo, F. A. O., Okeke, B. C., Bento, F. M., and Frankenberger, W. T. (2005). Arsenic-based warfare agents: production, use, and destruction. Both may harbor substantial amounts of toxic heavy metals. View the profiles of people named Frontier Metals. Adapted and modified with permission from Jaroslawiecka and Piotrowska-Seget (2014). Frontier Co-op; Frontier Co-op. What are “heavy metals” in plant sciences? arsR encodes a Transcriptional Repressor, arsC encodes a Cytoplasmic Arsenate Reductase, and arsB encodes a membrane bound Arsenite Efflux Pump. Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10534-008-9195-y, Pal, C., Asiani, K., Arya, S., Rensing, C., Stekel, D. J., Larsson, G. J. D., et al. However, this mechanism is mainly active in static environments when constant concentrations of heavy metals are present (Cunningham et al., 1993; Rouch et al., 1995). (2012). 3:399. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00399, Sharma, J., Shamim, K., Dubey, S. K., and Meena, R. M. (2017). London: Intechopen. (2014). “I am awakened,” says James Durbin. These available databases serve as important tools to help understand bacterial resistance mechanisms to heavy metals by linking various factors and parameters involved. Adapted and modified with permission from Paez-Espino et al. PcoD transports Cu1+ into the cytoplasm. doi: 10.1128/aem.59.1.7-14.1993, Dallo, S. F., and Weitao, T. (2010). This is achieved via Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and/or through an electrochemical gradient of protons (Ianeva, 2009). Phone: 1-888-316-1266 Fax: 303-458-1521 The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. (4) Pb detoxification via methylation. Lett. Appl. 181, 7398–7400. In the cytoplasm, MerA detoxifies Hg2+ ions through reduction-catalyzed volatilization process to a non-toxic elemental form Hg0. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.05.018, Mirzaei, N., Kafilzadeh, F., and Kargar, M. (2008). Insights into acinetobacter war-wound infections, biofilms, and control. 8, 9–14. (2017). (2015), identified 35 bacterial strains from 8 different species harboring multi-metal resistant phenotypes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. (2) Reducing Pb accumulation via intracellular and extracellular precipitation. doi: 10.1021/bi100026a, Yu, Z., Gunn, L., Wall, P., and Fanning, S. (2017). doi: 10.1128/AEM.03240-14, Fitchett, B. doi: 10.1128/aac.46.7.2124-2131.2002, Manchanda, V., Sanchaita, S., and Singh, N. (2010). Ianeva, O. D. (2009). Bacterial resistance to mercury. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. Immunol. Environ. [Mechanisms of bacteria resistance to heavy metals]. Acinetobacter baumannii has become increasingly resistant to leading antimicrobial agents since the 1970s. Br. Association of mercury resistance with antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates. news iron maiden heavy metal In the video below, find out how to obtain Frontier Coins from Iron Maiden’s Legacy Of The Beast, now available on Android and iOS. The biological chemistry of the transition metal “transportome” of Cupriavidus metallidurans. Environ. Cell Biol. Pb efflux is mediated by P-type ATPases such as, CadA of S. aureus, ZntA of E. coli, and PbrA of Cupriavidus metallidurans and to a lower extent by RND/CBA chemiosmotic transporters. A., Su, C.-C., and Yu, E. W. (2015). Essential heavy metals are required in many biological processes at low concentrations, where they serve as cofactors for metalloenzymes. Organic As is less toxic than inorganic arsenicals (Chou et al., 2007). The E. coli-resistant Pco system (Plasmid-borne-Copper Resistance) found in Cu-fed pigs consists of two operons, pcoGFE, and pcoABCDRS that are encoded by a 9-10 gene cluster (Brown et al., 1995). El-Sayed, M. H. (2016). Cu1+/Cu2+ enter the bacterial cells via non-specific porin proteins. This is achieved via SOS response activation. Health A Tox. Sci. Z 71, 54–65. To date, Hg methylation has only been only documented in anaerobic bacteria (Parks et al., 2013; Jaroslawiecka and Piotrowska-Seget, 2014). Durbin handled the lead vocals on the Quiet Riot albums Road Rage (2017), One Night In Milan (2019) and Hollywood Cowboys (2019). Chromate efflux by means of the ChrA chromate resistance protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci. Developed in close collaboration with Iron Maiden's management, players take on the role of the band's iconic mascot, Eddie, in his many forms - each with unique abilities. Technol. We are a member-owned co-op, responsible to people and planet. Front. The Cop system is encoded by a cluster of 6 plasmid-borne genes arranged in two operons, copABCD and copRS (Pal et al., 2017). (2019). Cellular targets and mechanisms in the cytotoxic action of non-biodegradable engineered nanoparticles. Crystal structures of multicopper oxidase CueO bound to copper(I) and silver(I): functional role of a methionine-rich sequence. More importantly, heavy metals can induce selective pressure on microbial populations leading to antimicrobial resistance through a mechanism called “co-selection” which occurs via 3 major ways (Seiler and Berendonk, 2012). Biotechnol. doi: 10.1042/bj2510691. Mikrobiol. Out of stock. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Chromium, Nickel and Welding. S. aureus, Providencia spp., and Pseudomonas spp., can precipitate Pb intracellularly in the form of Lead(II) phosphate [Pb3(PO4)2], while in Citrobacter freundii, extracellular Pb precipitation is mediated by phosphatase. 188:505. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5491-0, Scott, P., Deye, G., Srinivasan, A., Murray, C., Moran, K., Hulten, E., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.12.009, Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, bacteria, heavy metals, heavy metal tolerance, antimicrobial resistance, conflict, weapons, Citation: Bazzi W, Abou Fayad AG, Nasser A, Haraoui L-P, Dewachi O, Abou-Sitta G, Nguyen V-K, Abara A, Karah N, Landecker H, Knapp C, McEvoy MM, Zaman MH, Higgins PG and Matar GM (2020) Heavy Metal Toxicity in Armed Conflicts Potentiates AMR in A. baumannii by Selecting for Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Co-resistance Mechanisms. (6) Decreased sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. The ecosystem is continuously flooded with high amounts of heavy metals due to volcanic eruptions, soil and rock erosion, industrial operations such as petroleum combustion and coal burning, in addition to agricultural activities that include pesticides and fungicides preparation (Seiler and Berendonk, 2012; Tchounwou et al., 2012; Jaroslawiecka and Piotrowska-Seget, 2014; Pal et al., 2017). (5) Cr6+ reduction (Figure 5; Branco et al., 2008; Panda and Sarkar, 2012; Ahemad, 2014; Joutey et al., 2015; Pradhan et al., 2016). Microbiol. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Drug Des. Exp. The Samsung Gear S3 smartwatch has two distinct designs: the Classic and the Frontier. Over the past decades, Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major driver of hospital-acquired Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) infections (Manchanda et al., 2010; Williams et al., 2016; Mancilla-Rojano et al., 2019). The singer resigned from the band shortly before drummer Frankie Banali publicly revealed his stage four pancreatic cancer diagnosis. V-KN, HL, OD, GA-S, MM, NK, AA, CK, and GM contributed to the editing of the manuscript. (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2006.02.006, Blanco, P., Hernando-Amado, S., Reales-Calderon, J. Casey, T. (2009). The ars operon harbors 3 co-transcribed core genes that confer resistance not only to As3+ and As5+, but also to Antimony (Sb3+). 228:123. doi: 10.1007/s11270-017-3311-y, Hasman, H., and Aarestrup, F. M. (2002). Resistance to the organic form of Hg (CH3-Hg+) is achieved by merB, which encodes an Organomercurcial Lyase (MerB) located in the cytoplasm. Folia Microbiol. Involvement of DNA helicases in chromate resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Natl. 44, 1279–1283. Appl. Heavy metals are long persistent non-biodegradable elements that enter into our daily meal through biological food chain. Environ. Available at: https://cleantechnica.com/2009/07/04/us-military-targets-toxic-enemy-1-hexavalent-chromium/ (accessed July 4, 2009). Baker-Austin, C., Wright, M. S., Stepanauskas, R., and McArthur, J. V. (2006). Jagadeesan, B., Gerner-Smidt, P., Allard, M. W., Leuillet, S., Winkler, A., Xiao, Y., et al. MDRAb gained media attention after being identified in American soldiers returning from Iraq and treated in US military facilities, where it was termed “Iraqibacter.” However, MDRAb is strongly associated in the literature with war injuries that are heavily contaminated by both environmental debris and shrapnel from weapons. 59, 321–332. Open Micrbiol. Priming Compounds and Primers Introduction. Characterization of mercury-resistant clinical Aeromonas species. Genes Dev. Copper resistance of the emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Durbin was in Quiet Riot from about March 2017 to September 2019. End products of these reactions cause oxidative stress leading to protein and DNA damage. Former Quiet Riot frontman and American Idol finalist James Durbin will be released a heavy metal based album via Frontiers Music Srl in early 2021. doi: 10.1016/s0006-291x(02)00726-x, Leedjärv, A., Ivask, A., and Virta, M. (2007). 185, 3804–3812. Multidrug-resistant organisms in military wounds from Iraq and Afghanistan. 53, 2550–2562. (2019). (1995). Interestingly, Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp., induce Pb methylation to minimize its toxic effects. Microbial efflux systems and inhibitors: approaches to drug discovery and the challenge of clinical implementation. Strategy provides a practical solution to evaluate genomes and determine resistant genes for Compounds that not... Major efflux system families are present in microorganisms: ( 1 ), Boyd and Barkay T.. Last much longer, also called quills, offer a more robust and rich compared. 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